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Resources to help you properly cite using MLA, APA, and other style formats.

MLA 9th Edition Updates

MLA 9 Book CoverIn spring 2021, the Modern Language Association (MLA), released the 9th Edition of their style guide. Overall, there are no major changes between MLA 8 and MLA 9 in regard to how to cite materials, but there is more in-depth explanation and guidance regarding the major changes made with the 8th Edition. MLA has provided more examples of how to cite various types of sources that were not included in their MLA 8 release. These will be added to the PDF Style Guide and in the Works Cited List - Citation Format Examples box. For a list of othe notable changes, please visit What’s New in the Ninth Edition of the MLA Handbook

*This guide is in the process of being updated 10/6/2021.


Works Cited List - Guide Principles

Refer to the MLA Handbook in the library or the MLA website help page for a detailed explanation.

The following elements should be used in the below order for creating a citation for all types of sources. If one of the elements is not available, then move to the next one on the list. For some citations 3-9 will repeat. For example, if you found a journal article in an article database, such as Academic Search Complete. The journal is the first container (steps 3-9) and the database is the second container (repeat steps 3-9). Please refer to the MLA Quick Guide and the MLA 9th Practice Template for further explanation.

MLA 9 Image from:

"Works Cited: A Quick Guide." The MLA Style Center: Writing Resources from the Modern Language Association. Modern Language Association (MLA), 2021,



Works Cited List - Citation Format Examples

These are examples of some of the more common citations, but your citation might vary depending on the information available about your resource. When creating your citation use the list of elements 1-9.



Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Bantam Books, 1986.


Manning, Harriet J. Ashgate. Popular and Folk Music Series: Michael Jackson and the
     Blackface Mask
. Routledge, 2016. ProQuest ebrary,
     +jackson+blackface+mask. Accessed 23 June 2016.

Newspaper, print

Perez, Rob. "City Pushes to Keep Its Elevated-Rail Plan." Honolulu Advertiser,18 Jan.
     2010, pp. B1+.

Newspaper, online

Knopper, Steve. “How Hip-Hop Lost its Group Dynamic.” Wall Street Journal - Eastern
, 14 Aug. 2015, pp. D1+. Academic Search Complete,
     108888871&site=ehost-live. Accessed 23 June 2016.

Magazine, print Hitchens, Christopher. "Bring the Pope to Justice." Newsweek, vol. 155, no. 18, 3 May
     2010, pp. 42-43.
Magazine, online

Samuels, Allison, et al. “Battle for the Soul of Hip-Hop.” Newsweek, vol. 136, no. 15, 9 Oct.
     2000, pp. 58-65. Academic Search Complete,
     live. Accessed 23 June 2016.

Journal Article, print

Molina, Natalia. "In A Race All Their Own: The Quest to Make Mexicans Ineligible for U.S.
     Citizenship." Pacific Historical Review, vol. 79, no. 2, May 2010, pp. 167-201.

Journal Article, online

Boyer, Holly and Aimee Graham. “Hip Hop in the United States.” Reference & User
     Services Quarterly
, vol. 55, no. 3, Spring 2016, pp. 215-218. Academic Search
     login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=114060504&site=ehost-live. Accessed 23
     June 2016.

Video, online

Rhyme Pays: Hip-Hop and the Marketing of Cool. Films Media Group, 2004. Films On
, Accessed
     23 June 2016.

Image, online

Micelotta, Frank. VH1 Hip Hop Honors - Show. 3 Oct. 2004, photograph.
     Encycloaedia Britannica ImageQuest,
     _2768747/VH1-Hip-Hop-Honors---Show. Accessed 23 June 2016.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), et al. “CDC: Zika Virus.” Centers for
     Disease Control and Prevention
, 11 Feb. 2016, Accessed 2 Aug.

Note about URLs:
  • remove the http:// before the URL (MLA Handbook 110)
  • include the date you accessed the source since online materials change or can be removed at any time (MLA Handbook 53)

These are examples of some of the more common citations, but your citation might vary depending on the information available about your resource. When creating your citation use the list of elements 1-9.

Works Cited Page Format

The format of the Works Cited page has not changed.

MLA Help from MLA

MLA Help from the Purdue OWL

Need more help understanding how to cite using MLA style? 

Need to check your citations? Use the MLA Handbook!

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