In spring 2021, the Modern Language Association (MLA), released the 9th Edition of their style guide. Overall, there are no major changes between MLA 8 and MLA 9 in regard to how to cite materials, but there is more in-depth explanation and guidance regarding the major changes made with the 8th Edition. MLA has provided more examples of how to cite various types of sources that were not included in their MLA 8 release. The library has a copies of the 9th Edition in the library. For a list of other notable changes, please visit What’s New in the Ninth Edition of the MLA Handbook.
Refer to the MLA Handbook in the library or the MLA website help page for a detailed explanation.
The following elements should be used in the below order for creating a citation for all types of sources. If one of the elements is not available, then move to the next one on the list. For some citations 3-9 will repeat. For example, if you found a journal article in an article database, such as Academic Search Complete. The journal is the first container (steps 3-9) and the database is the second container (repeat steps 3-9). Please refer to the MLA Quick Guide and the MLA 9th Practice Template for further explanation.
MLA 9 Image from:
"Works Cited: A Quick Guide." The MLA Style Center: Writing Resources from the Modern Language Association. Modern Language Association (MLA), 2021, style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide/.
These are examples of some of the more common citations, but your citation might vary depending on the information available about your resource. When creating your citation use the list of elements 1-9.
Book by One Author
Owens, Delia. Where the Crawdads Sing. Penguin Publishing Group, 2018.
Book by Two Authors
Byrd, Rosaly, and Laurèn DeMates. Sustainability Made Simple: Small Changes for Big Impact. Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.
Book by More Than Two Authors
Karleskint, George, et al. Introduction to Marine Biology. 2nd ed., Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2006.
Scholarly Journal from a Database, with a DOI
Roig, Antoni, et al. “Netflix Fictional Feature Film Originals: An Analysis of Release Strategies.” Communication & Society, vol. 34, no. 2, 2021, pp. 125–39. EBSCOhost, https://doi.org/10.15581/003.34.2.125-139.1. Accessed 7 July 2022.
Scholarly Journal from a Database, with a Permalink
Richards, Colin. “The Substance of Polynesian Voyaging.” World Archaeology, vol. 40, no. 2, 2008, pp. 206–23. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40388207. Accessed 7 Jul. 2022.
News Publications Reported by a News Service
Hunt, Katie. “Carnivorous plant that traps prey underground is the 1st of its kind to be discovered.” CNN, 1 June 2022, www.cnn.com. Accessed 7 July 2022.
Magazine Article from a Website
Adams, Abigail. “Teen Honored for Saving 3 Victims and a Police Officer After Car Plunges Into River: ‘So Thankful.’” People, 6 July 2022, people.com/human-interest/teenager-honored-for-saving-3-victims-and-a-police-officer-from-river/. Accessed 7 July 2022.
Video Viewed on a Website
Nawaz, Amna, reporter. “Supreme Court’s EPA ruling raises climate change concerns.” PBS NewsHour, 5 July 2022, www.pbs.org/newshour/show/supreme-courts-epa-ruling-raises-climate-change-concerns. Accessed 7 July 2022.
Notes on DOIs, Permalinks, and URLs [5.93-5.99]:
Note on Date of Access [5.111]: It is a good practice to add the date of access at the end of the citation, but it is no longer a requirement. This is to show that you accessed something on a particular date just in case the source disappears or if it may be altered.
The format of the Works Cited page has not changed.