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Resources to help you properly cite using MLA, APA, and other style formats.

APA STYLE GUIDE, 7th Edition

Reference List - Citation Format Examples (7th Edition)

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced; the examples provided below are single-spaced to save room in this online guide.

Book (Print or library eBook)

Dreyer, Benjamin. (2019). Dreyer’s English: An utterly correct guide to clarity and style.
      Random House.

eBook (Online website)

Beckwith, M. (1970). Hawaiian mythology. University of Hawaii Press.

Newspaper (Print)

Garval, H. (2016, December 13). Preventing child abuse requires vigilance. Honolulu Star –

Newspaper (Online website)

Del Real, J.A., Samuels, R., & Craig, T. (2020, June 9). How the Black lives matter movement
     went mainstream. The Washington Post.

Magazine (Print & Online) Flanders, L. (2011). Immigration: A feminist issue. Nation, 293(26), 17-20.


Gay, M. (2011, October). White rhino, black market. The Atlantic.
(Print & Online with DOI)

Buswell, S. D., & Spatz, D. L. (2007). Parent-infant co-sleeping and its relationship to
     breastfeeding. Journal of Pediatric Health, 21(1), 22-28.

(Print & Online w/o DOI)

Crowley, C., & Munk, D. (2017). An examination of the impact of a college level meditation
     course on college student well being. College Student Journal, 51(1), 91-98.

[Use this example for a journal article from a library database.]
Film or Video

Fanning, D. (Executive Producer). (2006). The meth epidemic [Film; DVD]. PBS Home Video.

Films Media Group. (2006). Battling eating disorders [Film]. Meridian Education.
Webpage on a news website

Benveniste, A. (2020, October 26). Toy companies are cutting back on plastic to reduce
. CNN.

Webpage on a website with a group author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, September 9). About electronic cigarettes

Note about DOIs & URLs: The DOI or URL is the final component of the reference list entry. A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. A URL, or uniform resource locator, specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. Guidelines for including a DOI or URL in references:
  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI (online or print version, if available).
  • For works without DOIs from websites, provide a URL in the reference.
  • For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.

While every effort has been made to provide accurate citation examples, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition directly for detailed information and guidance.

APA Citation Help Links - New 7th edition updates

Need more help understanding how to cite using APA style? The links below include flash tutorials and useful web sites.

APA Manual 7th Edition: 17 Most Notable Changes [04:54]

If video does not load in player or to view the video transcript, please click this link.

APA Publication Manual, 7th -- CHECK IT OUT!

In-Text Citations

References in the text of your paper briefly identify sources and enable readers to locate them in the reference list.

When using APA format, provide at least the author's last name and the date of publication, enclosed in parentheses: (Kameʻeleihiwa, 2006). Or use a reference similar to: As Kameʻeleihiwa (2006) mentions... 

If there are two authors, use (Kameʻeleihiwa & Silva, 2006) or something similar to: Research by Kameʻeleihiwa and Silva (2006) supports...

For three or more authors, use (Kameʻeleihiwa et al., 2006) or something similar to: Kameʻeleihiwa et al. (2006) suggest...

For specific examples of citing multiple authors, refer to the OWL at Purdue University.

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